New Hampshire collects and evaluates data on emissions of criteria pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and air toxics (including, but not limited to mercury and dioxins), and greenhouse gases. Emissions of air pollutants result from both natural activities and human activities. Natural sources of emissions include trees (biogenic emissions) and volcanoes (geologic emissions). Emissions resulting from human activities, called anthropogenic emissions, are divided into three categories: stationary (or point) sources, area sources, and mobile sources, defined as:
- Stationary Sources (point sources) are usually larger individual process, storage or other industrial/commercial facilities. These include industrial and utility boilers, chemical manufacturers, gasoline terminals, paper mills, large waste management activities (e.g., landfills) and other manufacturing facilities. Point source emissions data is based on actual use of fuels and process rates as reported by the source.
- Area Sources are smaller, usually more widespread, population based activities whose emissions are estimated as a group. Area sources are divided into two groups: small stationary point sources (below permitting thresholds) and non-highway mobile sources. Examples of area sources include gas stations, dry-cleaning, consumer solvent use, small municipal waste management activities, home heating systems, aircraft, boats, lawn and garden equipment, all terrain vehicles, farm vehicles, and construction vehicles. Area source emissions data is based on activity level such as number of employees in a given business, quantity of product sold, or population.
- Mobile Sources are all on-highway mobile sources (cars and trucks). Mobile source emissions data is calculated based on number of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and emission factors in grams of pollutant emitted per vehicle mile traveled.
Stationary Source Fee and Reporting Requirements
The current fee requirements, effective June 26, 2004, have been established to support the development, implementation, and administration of the statewide air permit program for stationary sources. There are four types of fees: (1) emissions-based fees, (2) permit application review fees, (3) modeling fees, and (4) testing and monitoring fees.
The "emission-based" fee is an annual fee that all permitted sources pay for each ton of pollutant emitted for each calendar year, up to 6,000 tons per pollutant per facility. Through this method, companies have an additional economic incentive to reduce emissions since the fee is assessed only for pollutants actually emitted. The fee is calculated using a formula specified in the NH Administrative Rules. A base fee is adjusted annually by a Consumer Price Index multiplier (CPI) and an Inventory Stabilization Factor (ISF). The fee equates to $125.85 per ton for calendar year 2008.
Stationary sources subject to the emission-based fee are required to submit emission statement forms each year for their emissions from the previous year. The information on the emission statement forms is used to assess the fees and compile the emissions inventory for stationary sources.